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习大大访美成果:双边务实合作2(中英对照)

2015-09-29 11:39

来源:新东方网整理

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  II. Bilateral Practical Cooperation

  二、双边务实合作

  3. China and the United States recognize their shared interest in promoting a strong and open global economy, inclusive growth and sustainable development, and a stable international financial system, supported by the multilateral economic institutions founded at the end of World War II that have benefited the peoples of both nations. Both countries recognize and value the substantial contributions that the international financial institutions have made to global growth, higher incomes, the alleviation of poverty, and the maintenance of financial stability since their establishment. The rules-based international economic system has helped to propel China's unprecedented economic growth over the past 35 years, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. The United States has also benefited from the emergence of a global middle class that, by 2030, is projected to include more than 3 billion consumers in Asia alone. U.S. exports of goods and services supported approximately 12 million jobs in the United States in 2014. China has a strong stake in the maintenance and further strengthening and modernization of global financial institutions, and the United States welcomes China's growing contributions to financing development and infrastructure in Asia and beyond. The international financial architecture has evolved over time to meet the changing scale, scope, and diversity of challenges and to include new institutions as they incorporate its core principles of high standards and good governance. Both countries are committed to supporting this international architecture and welcome the greater role of the G20 in global economic governance to ensure an inclusive, resilient, and constantly improving international economic architecture to meet challenges now and in the future. In light of China's increased share of global economic activity and increased capacity, the United States welcomes China playing a more active role in and taking on due responsibility for the international financial architecture, as well as expanded bilateral cooperation to address global economic challenges. To this end:

  3、中美双方确认在促进强劲和开放的全球经济、包容性增长和可持续发展,以及稳定的国际金融体系方面拥有共同利益,上述目标的实现由第二次世界大战后成立的多边经济机构所支撑,这些机构使两国人民受益。中美双方确认并重视国际金融机构自建立以来对促进全球增长、提高收入、减少贫困和维护金融稳定所做的重大贡献。以规则为基础的国际经济体系在过去35年中助推中国实现了前所未有的经济增长,使亿万人民摆脱了贫困。美国也同样受益于全球中产阶级的出现,预计到2030年仅在亚洲就将有30亿消费者。2014年,美国商品和服务的出口在美国内支持了大约1200万人的就业。中方在维护、进一步加强并推动国际金融机构现代化方面有重大利益,美方欢迎中方不断增加对亚洲及域外地区发展事业和基础设施的融资支持。国际金融框架正不断演进,以应对在规模、范围和多样性方面都在发生变化的挑战,并将包括将高标准和良好治理作为其核心原则的新机构。双方承诺支持这一国际框架,并欢迎二十国集团(G20)在全球经济治理中发挥更大作用,确保国际经济体系具有包容性、韧性且不断得到完善,以应对当前和未来的挑战。鉴于中国在全球经济事务中的参与度和参与能力不断增加,美方欢迎中方在国际金融框架和拓展的双边合作中发挥更加积极的作用并承担相应的责任,以应对全球经济挑战。为此:

  (1) China and the United States commit to strengthening and modernizing the multilateral development financing system. Both countries resolve to further strengthen the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank and Inter-American Development Bank by enhancing their financial capacity, reforming their governance, and improving their effectiveness and efficiency. Consistent with its development, in addition to being a shareholder and borrower, China intends to meaningfully increase its role as a donor in all these institutions. Both sides acknowledge that for new and future institutions to be significant contributors to the international financial architecture, these institutions, like the existing international financial institutions, are to be properly structured and operated in line with the principles of professionalism, transparency, efficiency, and effectiveness, and with the existing high environmental and governance standards, recognizing that these standards continuously evolve and improve.

  (1)中美双方承诺强化多边开发融资体系并使其现代化。双方决心通过提高其资金能力、改革其治理和提升其有效性和效率,继续强化世界银行、亚洲开发银行、非洲发展银行、泛美开发银行。与发展阶段相适应,中方不仅将作为股东国和借款国,还有意愿有意义地在所有上述机构中提升作为捐款国的作用。双方认识到新机构以及未来将成立的机构,要成为国际金融框架的重要贡献者,这些机构将像现有国际金融机构一样,与专业性、透明度、高效率和有效性的原则以及现有环境和治理高标准相一致,进行恰当的设计和运营,同时认识到上述标准是在持续演进和改进的。

  (2) China and the United States reaffirm the importance of the MDBs in meeting the needs of the poorest countries through robust financial contributions to the International Development Association, Asian Development Fund, and African Development Fund. China is to meaningfully increase its contributions to the MDB concessional windows, consistent with its capacity. Both countries commit that the MDBs should continue to explore options to increase their lending capacity, including through using existing resources, and regularly reviewing their capital with an assessment of whether a capital increase is warranted. Both countries commit to continued efforts on MDB balance sheet optimization. China and the United States commit to collaborate on the World Bank shareholding review roadmap, including development of a shareholding formula and review of the World Bank's capital needs in 2017. Both sides also recognize that the middle income countries still face challenges in alleviating poverty and that the MDBs have a role in addressing those specific needs.

  (2)中美双方再次确认,通过对多边开发银行下设的国际开发协会、亚洲开发基金和非洲发展基金的强有力的捐款以满足最贫困国家的需求,是十分重要的。中方将按照其自身能力有意义地增加其对多边开发银行软贷款窗口的捐资。双方承诺多边开发银行应继续探索增强其贷款能力的选择,包括通过使用现有资源,并定期审议其资本金以评估是否需要增资。双方承诺继续在优化多边开发银行资产负债表方面做出努力。双方承诺就世界银行的股权分配改革路线图进行合作,包括股权分配公式的设计和在2017年审议世界银行的资本需求。同时,双方认识到中等收入国家在减贫方面依旧面临挑战,并且多边开发银行在应对上述特定需求方面发挥重要作用。

  (3) China and the United States commit to strengthen their cooperation in the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and continue to improve the IMF's quota and governance structure. The United States commits to implement the 2010 IMF quota and governance reforms as soon as possible and reaffirms that the distribution of quotas should continue to shift toward dynamic emerging markets and developing countries to better reflect the relative weight of IMF members in the world economy. China and the United States affirm the efforts of the IMF Executive Board to pursue an interim solution, which aims to converge quota shares to the extent possible to the levels decided under the 14th Review. However, the interim solution should not constitute or be seen in any way as a substitute for the 2010 reforms. China and the United States are to support the Executive Board's work on the 15th Review of Quotas, including a new quota formula, using the 14th Review as a basis.

  (3)中美双方承诺在国际货币基金组织(IMF)机制下加强合作,并继续完善IMF的份额和治理结构。美方承诺尽快落实2010年IMF份额和治理改革方案,并再次确认份额的分配应继续向具有活力的新兴市场和发展中国家转移,以更好地反映IMF成员国在世界经济中的相对权重。双方认可IMF执董会为寻求过渡方案所做的努力,过渡方案旨在使份额比例尽可能地趋近于第14次份额总审查确定的水平。但是,过渡方案不能构成或被视为代替2010年改革方案。双方支持IMF执董会在推动第15次份额总审查方面所做的工作,包括以第14次份额总检查为基础制定一个新的份额公式。

  (4) China and the United States commit to development finance cooperation in a third country through the multilateral development banks, respecting the ownership of the recipient countries.

  (4)中美双方承诺在尊重受援国所有权的前提下,通过多边开发银行在第三国开展发展融资合作。

  (5) The United States welcomes China's commitment to release economic data following the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standards (SDDS) by the end of the year and welcomes China's continued efforts to enhance transparency. China recognizes the importance to successful RMB internationalization of meeting the transparency standards of other major reserve currencies. The United States supports China's commitment to implement further financial and capital market reforms, and accordingly the United States reiterates its support for the inclusion of the RMB in the SDR basket provided the currency meets the IMF's existing criteria in its SDR review. Both countries commit to respect the IMF's procedures and process in the SDR review, and to enhance their communication on this issue.

  (5)美方欢迎中方承诺年底之前根据IMF特殊数据发布标准(SDDS)披露经济数据,也欢迎中方在提高透明度方面所做的持续努力。中方认识到,满足其他主要储备货币透明度标准对成功实施人民币国际化具有重要意义。美方支持中方关于进一步推动金融改革和资本市场改革的承诺,相应地,美国重申在人民币符合IMF现有标准的前提下支持人民币在特别提款权(SDR)审查中纳入SDR篮子。双方承诺尊重IMF在SDR审查中的程序和流程,并将在人民币加入SDR事宜上加强沟通。

  (6) China and the United States look forward to continuing to discuss mechanisms to facilitate renminbi trading and clearing in the United States.

  (6)中美双方期待继续就便利在美人民币交易和清算的机制问题进行讨论。

  (7) China and the United States welcome the important progress that has been made in the negotiation of new international guidelines on officially supported export credits since the establishment of the International Working Group on Export Credits (IWG) through a joint high level commitment in 2012. China and the United States reaffirm their support for IWG guideline coverage of official export credit support provided by or on behalf of a government, including, but not limited to, official export credit support provided by official export credit policy financial institutions, and look forward to further discussing the scope of the guideline coverage at the next IWG meetings in October. China and the United States reaffirm that the guidelines should help ensure that governments complement commercial export financing, while promoting international trade.

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