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2013年中洲经贸合作白皮书(一)

2013-09-06 16:34

来源:沪江英语

作者:

  中国与非洲的经贸合作(2013)

  China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation (2013)

  中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

  Information Office of the State Council, the People’s Republic of China

  2013年8月 北京

  August 2013, Beijing

  目录

  Contents

  前言

  Foreword

  一、推动贸易可持续发展

  I. Promoting Sustainable Development of Trade

  二、提升投融资合作层次

  II. Improving the Level of Investment and Financing Cooperation

  三、加强农业与粮食安全合作

  III. Strengthening Cooperation in Agriculture and Food Security

  四、支持非洲基础设施建设

  IV. Supporting African Infrastructure Construction

  五、注重非洲民生与能力发展

  V. Stressing African People’s Livelihoods and Capacity Building

  六、促进多边框架下的合作

  VI. Promoting Cooperation under the Multilateral Framework

  结束语

  Conclusion

  附录1 中非合作论坛第四届部长级会议经贸举措落实情况

  Appendix I Implementation of the Economic & Trade Measures of the Fourth FOCAC Ministerial Conference

  附录2 中非合作论坛第五届部长级会议中国政府宣布的未来三年中非重点合作领域

  Appendix II Priority Areas of China-Africa Cooperation for the Next Three Years Announced by the Chinese Government at the Fifth FOCAC Ministerial Conference

  前言

  Foreword

  当前,国际形势发生深刻复杂变化,新兴和发展中经济体成为推动世界经济发展的重要力量。中国与非洲国家顺应形势变化,在中非合作论坛框架内不断深化中非新型战略伙伴关系,大力推动经贸合作,积极探索符合中非实际的共同发展之路。

  Currently, as the international situation undergoes profound and intricate changes, newly emerging and developing economies have become the major force pushing forward the world’s economic development. In tune with the changes in the international environment, China and African countries are, within the framework of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), continuing to deepen the new type of China-Africa strategic partnership, vigorously advancing economic and trade cooperation, and actively exploring a common path that reflects both China’s and Africa’s realities.

  目前中国已成为非洲最大贸易伙伴国,非洲成为中国重要的进口来源地、第二大海外工程承包市场和第四大投资目的地。中非经贸合作的发展,促进了非洲国家民生的改善和经济的多元化发展,为中国经济社会发展提供了有力支持,也为促进南南合作与世界经济的平衡发展作出了积极贡献。

  China has become Africa’s largest trade partner, and Africa is now China’s major import source, second largest overseas construction project contract market and fourth largest investment destination. China-Africa economic and trade development has improved people’s livelihoods and diversified economic development in African countries, provided strong support for China’s socio-economic development, and contributed to promoting South-South cooperation and balanced world economic development.

  通过中非双方共同努力,中非经贸合作基础更加坚实、机制更加完善,不断涌现新的合作契合点和增长点。特别是2013年3月,中国国家主席习近平访问非洲,宣布一系列支持非洲发展的新举措,为推动中非经贸关系迈上新台阶注入了强大动力。

  Through the common efforts of China and Africa, bilateral economic and trade cooperation now enjoys a consolidated foundation and improved mechanisms, with new common interests and growth points in cooperation constantly emerging. In March 2013, China’s President Xi Jinping visited Africa and announced a series of new measures to support Africa’s development, providing a powerful impetus for the advancement of China-Africa economic and trade relations.

  2010年,中国政府发布了白皮书,介绍了中非经贸合作的有关情况。这里,就近些年来中非经贸合作取得的进展再作一介绍。

  In 2010, the Chinese government published a white paper on China-Africa economic and trade cooperation. This latest white paper provides a further introduction to the progress of bilateral economic and trade cooperation in recent years.

  一、推动贸易可持续发展

  I. Promoting Sustainable Development of Trade

  近年来,在全球经济复苏乏力的背景下,中非贸易仍然持续了较快发展的态势。2009年,中国成为非洲第一大贸易伙伴国。此后两年多时间里,中非贸易规模迅速扩大。2012年,中国与非洲贸易总额达到1984.9亿美元,同比增长19.3%。其中,中国对非洲出口额853.19亿美元,增长16.7%;自非洲进口额1131.71亿美元,增长21.4%。中非贸易总额、中国对非洲出口总额,以及自非洲进口总额均创历史新高。

  Against the background of sluggish global economic recovery in recent years, China-Africa trade development has maintained comparatively rapid momentum. In 2009, China became Africa’s No. 1 trade partner. In the following two years, the scale of China-Africa trade expanded rapidly. In 2012, the total volume of China-Africa trade reached US$198.49 billion, a year-on-year growth of 19.3%. Of this, US$85.319 billion consisted of China’s exports to Africa, up 16.7%, and US$113.171 billion was contributed by China’s imports from Africa, up 21.4%. Total China-Africa trade volume, China’s export volume to Africa and China’s import volume from Africa all reached new highs.

  随着中非贸易额的不断增长,中非贸易占中国和非洲对外贸易的比重有所上升。2000—2012 年,中非贸易占中国对外贸易总额的比重,从2.23%增加到5.13%。其中,中国自非洲进口占比从2.47%增加到6.23%,出口非洲的占比从 2.02%增加到4.16%。从非洲角度看,中非贸易占非洲对外贸易的比重,呈现出更为明显的上升趋势。2000—2012年,中非贸易占非洲对外贸易总额的比重从3.82%增加到16.13%。其中,非洲对中国出口的商品占比由3.76%上升到18.07%,从中国进口商品占比从3.88%上升到 14.11%,增长迅速。

  As the volume of China-Africa trade continues to grow, its proportion to China’s and Africa’s respective total foreign trade volume has also increased. From 2000 to 2012, the proportion of China-Africa trade volume as a part of China’s total foreign trade volume increased from 2.23% to 5.13%: the proportion consisting of China’s imports from Africa up from 2.47% to 6.23%, and that of China’s exports to Africa from 2.02% to 4.16%. On the African side, the changes are even more remarkable. From 2000 to 2012, the proportion of China-Africa trade volume as a part of Africa’s total foreign trade volume increased from 3.82% to 16.13%: the proportion contributed by Africa’s exports to China up from 3.76% to 18.07%, and that by Africa’s imports from China from 3.88% to 14.11%.

  中国对非出口产品总体上质量优、价格好,满足了非洲各阶层民众的消费需求。在规模扩大的同时,中非贸易结构逐步得以优化。随着非洲市场消费能力的不断提高,中国对非洲出口产品的技术含量明显增加。2012年,机电产品占中国对非洲出口商品的比重已达到45.9%。为进一步提升对非洲出口商品的质量,从2010年12月到2011年3月,中方开展了打击对非洲出口假冒伪劣和侵犯知识产权商品专项治理行动,采取输非工业品装运前检验等多项措施,中国对非出口商品质量得以明显提高。

  Chinese products exported to Africa are generally of fine quality and well-priced, and fulfill the consumption demands of all social strata in Africa. With the scale of trade expanded, the structure of China-Africa trade has been improved step by step. As the consumption capacity of the African market continues to expand, the amount of technical products that China exports to Africa has increased remarkably. In 2012, the proportion of mechanical and electrical products as a part of China’s total commodity exports to Africa reached 45.9%. In order to guarantee the quality of products exported to Africa, from December 2010 to March 2011, the Chinese side took special steps to crack down on the potential export to Africa of counterfeit and shoddy products and commodities that violated intellectual property rights. This involved multiple measures, such as prior-to-shipment quality examinations for industrial products that were to be exported to Africa. These measures helped guarantee the quality of Chinese commodities exported to Africa.

  过去三年,中国自非进口金额不断增长,原油、农产品等大宗商品贸易金额、数量都快速增长。通过中非贸易,非洲出口产品获得稳定市场,提升了价格,获得了更大实惠。同时,中国通过免关税、设立非洲产品展销中心等措施,积极扩大从非洲进口。自2012年 1月起,与中国建交的30个非洲最不发达国家全部可以享受60%的输华商品零关税待遇措施。截至2012年底,有22个非洲受惠国累计受惠货值达到 14.9亿美元,关税税款优惠9.1亿元人民币。2011年5月,中国设立的非洲产品展销中心在浙江省义乌市正式开业。通过减免运营费用等扶持政策,展销中心已吸引非洲20多个国家的2000余种商品入驻销售。

  Over the past three years, China’s import volume from Africa has increased notably, as the trade volume and quantity of bulk commodities, like crude oil and agricultural products, keep rising. Through China-Africa trade, Africa’s exporters have obtained access to a stable market, higher pricing and greater benefits. In the meantime, China has vigorously expanded its imports from Africa by enacting tariff exemptions and setting up exhibition centers for African products. Since January 2012, the 30 least developed African countries that have established diplomatic relations with China have been granted zero-tariff treatment for 60% of their exported items. By the end of 2012, 22 of them had seen 910 million yuan worth of tariff exempted, involving US$1.49 billion-worth of goods. In May 2011, an African Products Exhibition Center opened in Yiwu City, Zhejiang Province. By reducing operation expenditures and other supportive policies, the Exhibition Center has attracted over 2,000 salable commodity items from more than 20 African countries.

  中非贸易互补性强、潜力巨大,对中非双方的经济发展具有重要意义。中国将继续采取一系列措施促进中非贸易的健康发展,主要包括:实施“对非贸易专项计划”,扩大非洲输华产品零关税待遇的受惠范围,扩大非洲产品的进口;加强对非出口产品品牌和营销渠道建设,促进对非出口产品质量提升。另外,中国将通过提供促贸援助,帮助非洲国家改善海关、商检设施条件,为非洲国家提高贸易便利化水平提供支持,推动非洲区内贸易的发展。

  Sino-African bilateral trade has great potential due to the complementary conditions on both sides, and is significant for the economic development of both China and Africa. China will take multiple measures to promote the healthy development of China-Africa trade. These include implementing the "Special Plan on Trade with Africa,"which will expand the scope of zero tariff treatment for African products exported to China and increase China’s imports from Africa, and improving the brand building, marketing channels and quality of China’s commodities exported to Africa. In addition, China will help African countries improve their customs and commodity inspection facilities by mobilizing aid for trade, provide support for African countries to promote trade facilitation, and push forward trade development within Africa.

  二、提升投融资合作层次

  II. Improving the Level of Investment and Financing Cooperation

  经济基础薄弱、建设资金匮乏一直是非洲国家发展的主要瓶颈。中国政府鼓励、支持企业和金融机构扩大对非投资,努力提升中非合作的质量和水平。

  A poor economic foundation and insufficient construction funds have always been factors limiting the development of African countries. The Chinese government encourages and supports enterprises and financial institutions to increase investment in Africa, striving to improve the quality and level of China-Africa cooperation.

  2009年以来,非洲地区吸收外国直接投资连续下滑,但中国对非直接投资快速增加。据统计,2009—2012年,中国对非直接投资流量由14.4亿美元增至25.2亿美元,年均增长20.5%,存量由93.3亿美元增至212.3亿美元,增长1.3倍。中国对非投资的快速增长,一方面说明非洲的发展潜力和投资吸引力,另一方面也体现出中非合作的互补性。

  Since 2009, Africa has seen a decrease of foreign direct investment, but an accelerated growth of direct investment from China during this same period. From 2009 to 2012, China’s direct investment in Africa increased from US$1.44 billion to US$2.52 billion, with an annual growth rate of 20.5%. Over the same period, China’s accumulative direct investment in Africa increased from US$9.33 billion to US$21.23 billion, 2.3 times the 2009 figure. The rapid growth of China’s direct investment in Africa is indicative of Africa’s development potential and investment appeal, and also points to the mutually beneficial nature of China-Africa cooperation.

  在投资总量扩大的同时,中国对非投资层次也不断提升。目前,有超过2000家的中国企业在非洲50多个国家和地区投资兴业,合作领域从传统的农业、采矿、建筑等,逐步拓展到资源产品深加工、工业制造、金融、商贸物流、地产等。

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