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新东方:2016年9月高级口译阅读答案解析(视频)

2016-09-14 11:03

来源:上海新东方口译研究中心

作者:

  本次阅读选题依然围绕当前社会热点,密切联系世情发展。考生如能在日常阅读中关注政经时事,把握热点词汇,考试时应该能够较为顺畅。

  以阅读理解第四篇文章为例,作者Lawrence Summers是美国著名经济学家,曾担任美国第71任财长,亦曾担任哈佛大学校长,文章对经济一体化在全球的发展做了回顾分析,指出了当前面临的问题和解决问题的途径。

  阅读理解第四篇

  Since the end of World War II, a broad consensus in support of global economic integration as a force for peace and prosperity has been a pillar of the international order. From global trade agreements to the European Union project; from the work of the Bretton Woods institutions to the removal of pervasive capital controls; from the vast expansion in foreign direct investment to major increases in the flow of people across borders, the overall direction has been clear. Driven by domestic economic progress, by technologies such as containerized shipping and the Internet that promote integration, and by legislative changes within countries and international agreements between countries, the world has gotten smaller and more closely connected.

  第一段的主题句也就是第一句话Since the end of World War II, a broad consensus in support of global economic integration as a force for peace and prosperity has been a pillar of the international order,指出了二战后全球经济一体化的发展历程和影响,并不涉及文章主旨内容。

  This broad program of global integration has been more successful than could reasonably have been hoped. We have not had a war between major powers. Global standards of living have risen faster than at any point in history. And material progress has coincided with even more rapid progress in combating hunger, empowering women, promoting literacy and extending life. A world that will have more smartphones than adults within a few years is a world in which more is possible for more people than ever before.

  第二段同样不涉及核心内容,仍然是列举global integration造成的深远影响,可以大略阅读。

  Yet a revolt against global integration is underway in the West. The four most prominent candidates for president of the United States all oppose the principal free-trade initiative of this period: the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Trump’s proposals to wall off Mexico, abrogate trade agreements and persecute Muslims are far more popular than he is. The Brexit movement in Britain commands substantial support and could prevail. Whenever any aspect of the E.U. project is submitted to a popular referendum, it fails. Under pressure from a large influx of refugees, the European commitment to open borders appears to be crumbling. In large part because of political constraints, the growth of the international financial institutions has not kept pace with the growth of the global economy.

  第三段段首的YET是我们在讲解阅读技巧时提醒大家注意的一个逻辑标记,引出了文章探讨的核心——a revolt against global integration is underway in the West。

  One substantial part of what is behind the resistance is a lack of knowledge. Everyone who loses a job because a factory moves abroad knows it; many who lose their jobs for local reasons blame globalization. But no one thanks international trade for the fact that their paycheck buys twice as much in clothes, toys and other goods as it otherwise would. Those who succeed as exporters tend to credit their own prowess, not international agreements. So there is certainly a case for our leaders and business communities to educate people about the benefits of global integration. But at this late date, with the trends moving the wrong way, it is hard to be optimistic about such efforts.

  本段首句还是段落的主题句,探讨了经济一体化遭到反对的一部分原因在于缺少了解,所以需要leaders和business communities来宣扬其益处,尽管当前对此难以保持乐观。

  The core of the revolt against global integration, though, is not ignorance. It is a sense — unfortunately not wholly unwarranted — that it is a project being carried out by elites for elites, with little consideration for the interests of ordinary people. They see the globalization agenda as being set by large companies that successfully play one country against another. They read the revelations in the Panama Papers and conclude that globalization offers a fortunate few opportunities to avoid taxes and regulations that are not available to everyone else. And they see the kind of disintegration that accompanies global integration as local communities suffer when major employers lose out to foreign competitors.

  本段探讨了反对经济一体化的核心原因——it is a project being carried out by elites for elites,认为这个原因并非无凭无据(not wholly unwarranted)。

  What will happen going forward? What should happen?

  Elites can continue on the current path of pursuing integration projects and defending existing integration, hoping to win enough popular support that their efforts are not thwarted. On the evidence of the U.S. presidential campaign and the Brexit debate, this strategy may have run its course. This will likely result in a hiatus from new global integration efforts and an effort to preserve what is already in place while relying on technology and growth in the developing world to drive any further integration. The historical precedents, notably the period between World Wars I and II, are hardly encouraging about unmanaged globalization succeeding with neither a strong underwriter of the system nor strong global institutions.

  本段指出,精英人士可能会继续推进一体化,为其辩护,但这种策略或许已无裨益(this strategy may have run its course)。

  Much more promising is this idea: The promotion of global integration can become a bottom-up rather than a top-down project. The emphasis can shift from promoting integration to managing its consequences. This would mean a shift from international trade agreements to international harmonization agreements, whereby issues such as labor rights and environmental protection would be central, while issues related to empowering foreign producers would be secondary. It would also mean devoting as much political capital to the trillions of dollars that escape taxation or evade regulation through cross-border capital flows as we now devote to trade agreements. And it would mean an emphasis on the challenges of middle-class parents everywhere who doubt, but still hope desperately, that their kids can have better lives than they did.

  最后一段作者指出了更有希望的一些具体做法,希望通过侧重于international harmonization agreements等途径,更好地推动全球经济一体化。

  本篇文章中既有global economic integration、international order、Bretton Woods这样的传统热点词汇,也有像Trans-Pacific Partnership、Brexit movement这类政治经济领域的新型热点词汇,也提醒考生在备考时务必关注国际政治经济形势的发展变化,熟悉相关表达方式,以降低阅读时遇到障碍的可能性,提升自身的阅读速度。

  简答题第三篇文章

  本文选自2015年11月的《时代周刊》,谈论的是代际之间的关系问题。传统意义上来说,中国人讲究“家有一老,如有一宝”,老人往往因为其自身丰富的人生阅历而受到重视和尊敬,但本文却提出了“反向指导”(reverse mentorship)的概念,颇有新意。本文并没有很多生僻词语,但对boomer、Gen X-ers和Millennials这类词语的基本理解却是答题的关键所在。

  A friend of mine, who's a little over 50, met with a big firm about a job recently. The good news was that they loved his ideas. But they said he would have to get someone else to present all his great ideas to clients. In other words, someone who can wear a hoodie to work without irony. Like a business body double. A millennial beard. That way, the company could keep looking young while still benefiting from his deep knowledge of the business and, well, human nature.

  首段以作者朋友的实例引出文章内容,是常见的笔法。

  The concept isn't as unfair as it sounds. As a late boomer, I have high hopes for this arrangement. We are increasingly codependent generations. Millennials need boomers and older Gen X-ers so they know what to improve on. And we need millennials to get our ideas across. Just ask anyone who's tried pitching a startup to investors without a 20-something on her team. Even middle-aged people don't trust anyone over 30. That's why 40- and 50-somethings fall all over themselves in meetings to show who can most enthusiastically agree with a millennial's idea.

  本段提到了boomers、older Gen X-ers和Millennials三代人,认为大家越来越互相依赖(increasingly codependent)。

  It's a little desperate, our bid for relevance by association. But we oldsters feel insecure without a 20-something as backup, especially when it comes to anything involving the word content. Or Snapchat. Or any kind of sharing that doesn't involve food or money. More important, millennials are now the largest, hardest-working sector of the workforce and the most desirable market for most businesses, and we don't want them to turn on us.

  本段讲述了Millennials能够发挥的作用,比如让oldsters有安全感。

  At Google, where the median employee age is about 29, the company has a support group for people over 40 called Greyglers. In the blurb about Greyglers, the company notes that they hope to promote "age diversity awareness" at Google and foster the success of their "elders." Yes, middle age is now a special-interest group. This is perhaps why 28-year-old tech gurus fret about losing their jobs to college interns who are cheaper and more current. It's also why Botox is booming in the Valley among some older engineers. Closely related is a new corporate trend called "reverse mentorship." That's when millennials take older employees under their wing to teach them how most corporate revenue problems can be solved with a few social-media tricks, and why you shouldn't ever leave voice mails for anyone.

  本段以实例的方式阐述了年龄方面的差别,提出了“反向指导”(reverse mentorship)的概念。

  Nonetheless, I'm all for millennial mentors. (And I agree about voice mail.) I used to run TIME's editorial-technology department, back when people used dial-up modems. Since then I've learned to make deals in advance with a millennial to ensure support before I suggest anything vaguely technical in a meeting. You need a millennial front person for an idea to succeed. Partly because when they believe in something, they will put in 7,000 thankless hours to make it happen. Plus, life is so much better when it's infused with the energy of people who aren't hobbled by the memory of what didn't work "the last time we tried that." Turns out, tech knowledge is a lot like online celebrity. It's highly perishable.

  本段阐释了作者对这一做法的支持态度和背后的原因,要注意PARTLY、PLUS这样的词语体现的列举情况。

  And that's where we boomers can come in handy for millennials. We've already done all that reckoning. We learned a long time ago that there is always someone younger, thinner and more digital waiting right behind you.

  Remember, back in the 20th century, we were the smartest kids in the room. But then we had kids ourselves, and the stakes got higher when it came to careers and relationships. We couldn't just keep trading up or moving on; we had to learn to hold on instead. And work started bleeding into our nights and weekends, thanks to the very technology that everyone still struggles to keep ahead of now. Time was no longer limitless, and it stretched thin faster than we expected.

  本段是作者对所代表的一代人的情况的回顾。

  This new generation will face all that soon enough. Even Mark Zuckerberg, who famously said that "young people are just smarter," might not feel so smart now that his first child has arrived. Babies can do that. Family is the one variable you can't control for. You can't scrap them for a new version. There's no A/B testing or product road map, and the people in your life will be unfailingly unpredictable. You'll often decide to choose their happiness over your ambitions. And they will get sick or die when you don't expect it. Life is inherently disruptive. You just have to adapt. There's no secret hack, no work-around, no pro tip for that. Except maybe this: to manage the personal hurricanes that will blow your way, you'll need aid and comfort from the people where you work. And that's when a little intergenerational codependence can be a very good thing.

  本段是对新一代人的分析,同时指出,代际之间彼此有些依赖可以说是件好事(a little intergenerational codependence can be a very good thing)。

(编辑:何莹莹)

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