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新东方:2016年3月13日高级口译阅读解析(视频)

2016-03-14 09:56

来源:上海新东方

作者:郑玲华

  本次高口阅读正题趋势呈实用化,三大重点板块,社会时政、经济金融、生物科技依然为高频出现板块。考题涉及全球变暖巴黎峰会、英国白色污染症状减缓,即一次性垃圾袋使用降低、持股人对于公司经济表现的影响,七篇文章中涉及一半。此外,法律类、文化类、医学类各有一篇,均为现下最新最热门话题,兼具实用性与多元性。

  高口阅读第一大类选择题文章涉及四篇,巴黎峰会、大学文明、白色污染、与警察致死人犯。

  高口阅读Multiple Choice 第一篇 —— Global Warming

  该文讲述全球气候变暖问题,属生态环保(Ecology)型文章,为高口常考三大题材之科技板块。气候变暖这一话题已多次在中高口阅读中出现,考生多具备相关的背景文化信息。

  本文指出2015年为史上最热的一年,同时介绍了巴黎气候峰会的具体进展,文中与时俱进的提及习主席、奥巴马对于全球变暖这一问题的最新看法与解决倡议,回忆了以往针对气候变暖而提出的各项解决措施。相关词汇如京都议定书(Kyoto Protocol), 哥本哈根协议(Copenhagen Accord), 全球变暖(global warming),二氧化碳排放量(carbon dioxide emission volume)等为热门考点词。

  高口阅读Multiple Choice 第二篇 —— Civility

  第二篇文章涉及教育内容,文中举出大量案例介绍了美国各大高校的校长,如耶鲁大学等,对于礼貌(Civility)的关注与倡议。

  高口阅读Multiple Choices 第三篇 —— The Times 《泰晤士报》

  We’ll look back in anger at plastic bag habit

  Like littering and smoking almost everywhere, future generations will only wonder why it took us so long to stop

  I once attended a Downing Street reception where Tony Blair invited questions from leading magazine editors. One woman, from a big consumer title, asked if New Labour had plans to tax one-use plastic bags that were destroying the environment. Blair pulled a mock-baffled “Hey, guys, I’m busy running the country here” face and answered in a tone of purest condescension.

  This was around 2005, a few years after Ireland, with little fuss at all, had introduced a small charge for plastic bags. Within a year, everyone had learnt to keep a jute sack or string shopper under their desk, and……

  本文节选自Janice Turner在泰晤士报上发表的文章,该文中心聚焦塑料袋习惯为环境带来的巨大灾害,旨在鼓舞群众放弃使用塑料袋的不良习惯,为自身、为下一代改变固有的陋习,改善地球日趋恶化的自然环境。

  环保生态(Ecology)为高口常考三大题材之科技板块,即经济金融、社会时政、生物科技之一。与塑料袋相关的文章并不是第一次出现,白色污染(white pollution), 一次性塑料袋(one-use plastic bags), 麻袋(jute sack)等先关词汇需考生熟悉并掌握相关知识。此外,文章中也涉及部分时政信息,如英国前首相托尼布莱尔Tony Blair, 首相官邸唐宁街(Downing Street),新工党(New Labour),此类英美政治的基础背景文化常在阅读文章中出现。

  高口阅读Multiple Choices 第四篇 —— Wikipedia 维基百科

  Death of Freddie Gray

  On April 12, 2015, Freddie Carlos Gray, Jr., a 25-year-old man, was arrested by the Baltimore Police Department for possessing what the police alleged was an illegal switchblade. While being transported in a police van, Gray fell into a coma and was taken to a traumacenter. Gray died on April 19, 2015; his death was ascribed to injuries to his spinal cord. On April 21, 2015, pending an investigation of the incident, six Baltimore police officers were suspended with pay.

  本文节选自维基百科,文章体裁属法律板块。首段为故事段,通过开篇关于Freddie Gray的死亡引出全文对于巴尔的摩监狱狱警的系列问题探索。文中出现大量相关法律词汇,值得考生关注记诵,如本段中的“pending an investigation”, “suspend with pay”,等待调查、留薪停职等。

  The circumstances of the injuries were initially unclear; eyewitness accounts suggested that the officers involved used unnecessary force against Gray during the arrest—a claim denied by at least one officer involved. Commissioner Anthony W. Batts reported that, contrary to department policy, the officers did not secure him inside the van while driving to the police station; this policy had been put into effect six days prior to Gray's arrest, following review of other transport-related injuries sustained during police custody in the city, and elsewhere in the country during the preceding years. The medical investigation found that Gray had sustained the injuries while in transport. On May 1, 2015, the Baltimore City State's Attorney, Marilyn Mosby, announced her office had filed charges against six police officers after the medical examiner’s report ruled Gray's death a homicide, on the grounds that Gray had died as a result of a 'rough ride'—a form of police brutality in which a victim is helplessly thrown around the interior of a police vehicle by deliberately abrupt police driving, while unable to protect themselves due to handcuffs or other restraints. (Rough rides were already implicated in deaths, paralysis, and severe spinal injuries in several other cases.)

  第二段为例证段,具体分析和论证了Gray的死亡为刻意谋杀(homicide),是由警方在犯人运输过程中的粗野驾驶(rough rides)、玩忽职守(did not secure)与恶意伤害(brutality, deliberate abrupt driving)导致。段落理据结合,将人证(witness)、检察长( Commissioner), 医疗调查组(medical investigation)的论述一一论证,清晰有理的指出六名狱警对于Gray的死亡负有不可推卸的责任。

  The prosecutors stated that they had probable cause to file criminal charges against the six police officers who were believed to be involved in his death. The officer driving the van was charged with second-degree "depraved-heart" murder for his indifference to the considerable risk that Gray might be killed, and others were charged with crimes ranging from manslaughter to illegal arrest. In a later rebuttal to allegations that the knife was illegal, prosecutors argued that Gray was illegally arrested well before the officers knew that he possessed a knife, and without probable cause. On May 21, a grand jury indicted the officers on most of the original charges filed by Mosby with the exception of the charges of illegal imprisonment and false arrest, and added charges of reckless endangerment to all the officers involved.

  第三段阐述了该案件的后续发展与六名警察得到的罪名指控。检控方以二级冷血谋杀罪(second degree depraved heart murder)起诉驾驶员不顾他人安危,其他警员故意杀人罪(manslaughter)、非法拘禁(illegal arrest),陪审团追加所有六名警员怠忽致危醉(reckless endangerment)。本段中出现大量犯罪类型,考生可作参考,罪名均为贬义,可归纳为一类进行概括理解。

  Gray's hospitalization and subsequent death resulted in an ongoing series of protests. On April 25, 2015, a major protest in downtown Baltimore turned violent, resulting in 34 arrests and injuries to 15 police officers. After Gray's funeral on April 27, civil disorder intensified with looting and burning of local businesses and a CVS drug store, culminating with a state of emergency declaration by Governor Larry Hogan, Maryland National Guard deployment to Baltimore, and the establishment of a curfew. On May 3, the National Guard started withdrawing from Baltimore, and the night curfew on the city was lifted.

  末段为事件后续发酵情形,Gray的入院与骤然死亡导致了大量的抗议活动,巴尔的摩市中心发生了大量暴力示威,警民关系一度紧张。Gray的葬礼甚至引发了当地政府颁布宵禁禁令,阻止不断激烈的冲突与混乱。文章从法律板块引申至社会时针板块,宵禁(curfew)一次不止一次在高口阅读考试中出现,为高频词汇。

  高口阅读第二大类选择题文章涉及三篇,医生降薪、美国教育多元化、与持股人对公司经济的利弊影响。

  高口阅读Question & Answer 第一篇 —— Doctors

  本文为医学板块,阐述了美国针对年轻医生的一项新政策,即减少年轻医生收入。文中对于该政策产生的各方面影响进行分析。如年轻医生对此产生的不满之情与采取的罢工行为,又如病患对此产生的忧患担心。

  高口阅读Question & Answer 第二篇 —— Education

  第二篇文章为教育板块,文中提及2014年被认为是美国教育体系的里程碑,作为一个多元化的国家,美国基础教育的学生逐渐呈多民族趋势,亚洲学生与非洲学生的人数稳步上升,种族多样性在美国基础教育中得到了体现,同时提供了良性竞争与互相提高。

  高口阅读Question & Answer 第三篇 —— Economist 《经济学人》

  When workers are owners

  It is popular to lament the growing gap between capitalists and workers. In one respect, however, the gap is shrinking: the number of workers who own shares in the business that employs them has never been higher. America leads the way: 32m Americans own stock in their companies through pension and profit-sharing plans, and share-ownership and share-option schemes. And worker-capitalists are also on the march in Europe and Asia.

  本文出自《经济学人》,第一段提出文章话题,资本家与工人之间的关系变化趋势。该文属经济板块,与科技、社会并未高口阅读三大高频题材。段落中出现大量金融专有词汇,如 “share”, “stock”, “pension”, “profit-sharing”, “share-ownership”, “share-option”等和股市、期权、分红、期权等相关的词汇

  A number of studies have found that workers at firms where employees have a significant stake tend to be more productive and innovative, and to have less staff turnover.

  第二段提出优点,公司中持有股份的员工更高效、更有创造力。

  Employee ownership has its drawbacks, however. One is the risk that workers have too many eggs in one basket: if their employer goes bust they can lose their pensions as well as their jobs.

  第三段提出缺点,正反论证员工股份制的缺点。第一个缺点为风险过于集中。文中使用部分英语习语,如“have too many eggs in one basket”, 把鸡蛋放在一个篮子里,即无法分散风险。

  A second problem is entrenchment. Critics argue that it can entrench bad management and undermine a company’s long-term competitiveness: underperforming bosses are much more likely to be able to stay in place, and resist hostile takeovers, if some of the company’s shares are in friendly hands.

  第四段为第二处缺点,故步自封。股权过于集中会削弱公司长期竞争力与低效管理能力。高频金融词汇反复出现,如“entrench bad management”, “undermine long-term competitiveness”, “hostile takeover”等需考生熟悉。

  A third risk is entitlement. The strongest argument in favour of employee ownership is that workers will not only toil harder if they get a slice of the profits, but will make sure that their colleagues do so too. A new paper by some academics argues that commitment can transmute into entitlement. They studied a sample of 409 employees at a commercial-property firm and found that those who invested highly in company stock expected better benefits – in the form of promotions and pay rises – than the rest, and took more discretionary leave.

  第五段为第三处缺点,过于重视权益。持股员工过分关注公司权益,对利润好处期待过高,并敦促同事同样行事,行为容易偏颇。段中“entitlement”一词与前段”entrenchment”遥相呼应,简单明了的总结段落中心。

  Arguments about employee ownership can easily become too sweeping: grand claims from supporters invite vigorous rebuttals by critics. A great deal depends on how schemes are structured, and the motives for introducing them. Another recent paper considers the sizes of schemes and of the firms that offer them. They found that small schemes (which control a stake of less than 5% in the company in question) are far more likely to boost productivity than larger ones, because firms that introduce large schemes are often troubled ones trying to conserve cash by substituting shares for pay, or seeking to fend off hostile takeovers by giving shares to friendly insiders.

  本段概括观点,提出支持者与反对者之间对于员工持股好坏的辩论。文中“another”一词画龙点睛,将两派人的观点自然分割。同时,文中考到标点符号阅读技巧,双括号为重复说明,which control a stake of less than 5% in the company in question具体揭示了small scheme的范围,可略读。

  If politicians are serious about the idea, they need to think harder about how to make it work in practice. They should pay closer attention to how schemes are designed, and look for ways to tailor regulations and tax incentives so as to encourage well-designed schemes. They also need to deal with the problem of concentrating risk in a single company’s shares.

  最后一段引深,将中心思想拔高,从公司内部的员工持股问题拓展到整个社会层面的金融发展,针对欧美国家经济困境提出部分解决方法。作者建议政府官员关注该问题,妥善权衡利弊分享,利用员工持股制促进国家经济。

 

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