2016-03-03 14:34



  V.Main Measures to Cope with NuclearAccidents


  By referring the advanced international standardsand drawing on worldwide mature experience, Chinahas defined working measures to control, mitigateand cope with nuclear accidents commensuratewith its national conditions and actual situation ofnuclear energy development.


  Implementing the defense-in-depth concept. Five lines of defense have been set up underwhich the nuclear emergency preparedness threshold is moved ahead and multiple barriers areinstalled to strengthen nuclear safety, prevent accidents and mitigate the consequences of anaccident. The five lines of defense are: First, the quality of design, manufacturing,construction and operation shall be assured to prevent deviation from normal operation;second, operation procedures and operation technical specifications shall be rigorously followedand observed to ensure that each nuclear generating unit is operated within the defined safetyrange, any deviations therefrom are detected and corrected in a timely manner, and anyabnormal operation is controlled to prevent it from evolving into an accident; third, in case adeviation fails to be corrected in a timely manner, plant safety and protection systems shallbe automatically activated upon occurrence of an accident within the design datum, andemergency operationsshall be organized to prevent the situation deteriorating; fourth, in casean accident fails to be controlled effectively, accident handling procedures shall be activatedwith the accident management strategy enforced to ensure that the containment shall remainintact and no radioactive substances are released into the environment; and fifth, in the eventof failure of the above-mentioned lines of defense, off-site emergency actions shall beimmediately activated in an effort to minimize any impact from the accident on the public orthe environment. Meanwhile, multiple physical barriers shall be set up to ensure thatmultiple lines of defense are in place to prevent and control release of radioactivesubstances into the environment.


  Exercising a tiered response scheme. The level of a nuclear accident shall be determined inaccordance with the nature and seriousness of the accident and scope of effect fromradiation, based on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) guidelines ofthe International Atomic Energy Agency. The nuclear emergency preparedness condition isdivided into Emergency Standby, Building Emergency, On-Site Emergency and Off-SiteEmergency, which respectively correspond to Level IV response, Level III response, Level IIresponse and Level I response. The first three levels of response mainly focus on theorganization and implementation of emergency actions within the site. Off-Site Emergencyshall be announced with its corresponding Level I response activated upon occurrence ofrelease or possible release of a large quantity of radioactive substances into theenvironment in which accident consequences have crossed boundaries of the site, with thepossibility of seriously jeopardizing public health and environmental safety.


  Deploying actions of response. Every level of nuclear emergency organization shall implementthe following response actions in whole or in part depending upon the nature and seriousnessof the accident:


  Mitigating and controlling the accident in a timely manner. A professional force, equipmentand supplies shall be thrown into immediate engineering emergency measures to mitigateand control any accident in an attempt to bring the relevant nuclear installation back to a safecondition while preventing or minimizing the release of radioactive substances into theenvironment.


  Conducting radiation monitoring and consequence assessment. Radiation monitoring shallbe conducted at the site of the accident and areas affected and doses possibly absorbed bypersonnel shall be measured. Observation/surveillance and forecast on meteorological,hydrological, geological and seismic impacts shall be provided on a real-time basis. The accidentconditions shall be diagnosed and substances released shall be analyzed to determine theaccident evolution trend, evaluate radiation consequences and define the areas affected.


  Organizing personnel to implement emergency protection actions. If radioactive isotope ofiodine has already been released or may be released arising from an accident, a professionalteam shall organize the public within a given area to take stable iodine pills to minimizeradiation exposure to the thyroid gland. The people in the affected area shall be dulyorganized to take emergency protection measures deemed necessary, including hiding,evacuating, seeking temporary shelter or permanently moving out in order to prevent orminimize injuries from radiation exposure. Psychological assistance shall be provided in atimely manner to minimize social anxiety and panic.


  Arranging decontamination and medical treatment. Professionals shall be dispatched to removeor minimize radioactive pollution affecting people, equipment, premises and theenvironment. A nuclear emergency preparedness medical rescue force shall be organized toperform medical diagnoses, case identification and medical treatment, including on-site first-aid treatment, local hospital treatment and backup professional treatment.


  Controlling access passages and ports. Zones shall be demarcated according to the areasaffected and strict control shall be enforced over the passage of people, vehicles, equipmentand supplies in and out of the designated passages. People, vehicles, cargo containers, goods,travelers' belongings and parcels moving in or out of the border checkpoints shall be screenedfor radiation detection and control.


  Strengthening market supervision and regulation. Necessities shall be subject to marketsupervision and regulation in a timely manner in line with the supply of market and thepublic psych in the areas affected. Manufacturing, processing, circulation and consumption ofcontaminated food and drinking water shall be banned or limited, so as to prevent orminimize the intake of radioactive substances.


  Maintaining social order. Illegal or criminal acts, such as spreading rumors to create panic,shall be dealt with rigorously. Additional makeshift police posts shall be established toreinforce security patrols in important locations such as settlement sites and storage placesfor rescue supplies. Security for important premises such as the site of the nuclear accidentshall be enhanced, and traffic control in the surrounding areas shall be properly coordinatedaccording to actual needs.


  Releasing accurate official information. Accurate and official information shall be duly publishedto the public by the central, provincial (regional or municipal) governments and operators ofnuclear installations in accordance with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) practice,and the laws and regulations of China to ensure that information with respect to nuclearaccident status, effects on the public and individual protection measures shall be disclosed tothe public in an open, transparent and timely manner.


  Doing well in notifying the international community and requesting for help. Notification shallbe given to the international community in accordance with the Convention on EarlyNotification of a Nuclear Accident of the IAEA. Request for assistance shall be made to theIAEA and the world community in accordance with the Convention on Assistance in the Case ofa Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency of the IAEA, depending upon the actual situation.


  Establishing a robust system of technical standards for national nuclear emergencypreparedness. A complete system of technical standards for national nuclear emergencypreparedness shall be established, and it covers the standards for classification of nuclearpower plant emergency planning zones, nuclear accidents and emergency status,implementation of emergency protection actions, and definition of emergencyintervention principles and levels of intervention, so as to provide a primary technicalguideline for the implementation of nuclear emergency preparedness and response.


  Strengthening emergency on-duty system. An emergency on-duty system shall be establishedto ensure that each level of nuclear emergency organization stays on-duty 24 hours a day.National contact points for nuclear emergency preparedness under the national nuclear accidentemergency office shall be on duty for nuclear emergency preparedness to collect informationabout domestic nuclear installations and keep the IAEA updated.




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