2016-03-03 14:29



  I.Current Situation of Nuclear EnergyDevelopment and Nuclear EmergencyPreparedness


  It was in the mid-1950s that China embarked on itsnuclear industry. Over the past more than sixdecades China has made constant endeavors in thepeaceful use of nuclear energy by promoting theextensive application of nuclear technologies tosuch areas as industry, agriculture, medicine, theenvironment and energy. In particular, since theintroduction of the reform and opening-up policies in late 1978 China’s nuclear energy sectorhas seen particularly rapid development.


  The development of nuclear power constitutes an important component of China’s nuclearenergy sector. Nuclear power is a clean, efficient and quality modern energy source. Chinahas consistently adhered to the principle of placing equal emphasis on development andsafety, and implemented the policy of developing nuclear power in a safe and efficient mannerby adopting the most advanced technology and most stringent standards. In March 1985construction started on the Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, the first of its kind in the mainlandof China. As of the end of October 2015, in the mainland of China 27 nuclear generating unitshad been in operation, with a total installed capacity of 25.50 GWe, and another 25 nucleargenerating units with a total installed capacity of 27.51 GWe had been under construction.China has already developed its large-sized advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) andHigh Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technologies with proprietary intellectualproperty rights. Constructionof the HPR1000 technology pilot project has already commenced.The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) has achieved full power operation over 72 hours,signifying that China has already mastered the core technology associated with fast reactors.


  With the development of the nuclear energy sector, nuclear safety and nuclear emergency workhave seen steady synchronous reinforcement. China’s nuclear facilities and nuclear activitieshave all along been in safe and stable state and, in particular, the safety level of nuclearpower stations has witnessed constant improvement. None of the nuclear power generatingunits in China’s mainland has suffered events or accidents rated above Level 2 under theInternational Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES), with the release of gaseous andliquid effluents kept far below the national regulatory limits. All of the under-constructionnuclear power generating units have intact quality assurance, safety supervision andemergency preparedness systems.


  China has always attached great importance to nuclear emergency work by taking a highlyresponsible attitude toward the safety of the people and society as a whole in enforcing nuclearemergency management. Arrangements have been made for nuclear emergency work intandem with the decision taken to proceed with nuclear power development. In the wake ofthe Chernobyl accident, China made it clear that there would be no change in its nuclear powerdevelopment policy, while stressing that a good job would be done on nuclear emergencypreparedness - with the result that national nuclear emergency work got off the ground in1986. In 1991 the National Nuclear Accident Emergency Committee was inaugurated andcommissioned to make overall planning and coordinate nuclear accident emergencypreparations and rescue work nationwide. In 1993 China promulgated the Regulations onEmergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants to formalize nuclearemergency by regulatory means. In 1997 the first National Nuclear Emergency Plan (Scenario)was issued to lay out arrangements for nuclear emergency preparations and response in theform of a governmental decision. To cater to the needs of nuclear power development,multiple revisions have since been made to the original Plan and the latest version of NationalNuclear Emergency Plan has been enacted. At present, China’s nuclear emergencymanagement and preparations have seen comprehensive upgrades in terms of system,specialization, standards and scientific rigor.


  Under China’s medium- and long-term development objectives, by 2020 the in-operationnuclear power installed capacity will reach 58 GWe in the mainland of China plus anadditional 30 GWe approximately under construction. By 2030 endeavors will have beenmade to put into place science and technology R&D systems along with their associatedindustrial systems representing the global development trends of nuclear power, and to ensurethat nuclear power technologies and equipment will take up a substantial share in theinternational market, thereby meeting the target of building a strong nuclear power country.Faced with the new situation, new challenges and new requirements, China is still confrontedwith shortfalls in nuclear emergency work in terms of technology, equipment, neededprofessionals, capacity and standards, which are the same problems encountered by othercountries in developing nuclear energy. China will seek to reinforce national nuclear emergencymanagement and raise its nuclear emergency work to a new level through idea innovation,scientific and technological innovation, and management innovation.


  II. Guidelines and Policies for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness


  As a large developing country, China has laid down basic guidelines and policies applicable tonuclear emergency preparedness through enactment of laws, administrative regulations andissuance of government decrees in the course of nuclear energy development.


  The basic objectives of nuclear emergency preparedness in China are: scientific coordinationaccording to law, timely and effectively coping with nuclear accidents, maximallycontrolling/mitigating or eliminating accidents, minimizing human casualties/fatalities andproperty damages, protecting the public and the environment, maintaining social order andsafeguarding the people’s safety and national security.


  The basic policy of nuclear emergency management in China is: constant vigilance, versatilecompatibility, unified command, active coordination, public safeguard and environmentalprotection.


  Constant vigilance, versatile compatibility. Nuclear emergency organizations at all levelsshould stay alert and vigilant at all times in readiness to respond to possible nuclearaccidents at any time. A nuclear emergency preparation and response system featuringcoordination of dedicated and standby systems, rational deployment of resources,combination of routine exercises and actual emergency response, and integration ofcivilian and military resources is to be established and perfected. Nuclear emergency workmust be planned and deployed in an overall manner together with other activities andimplemented compatibly with them.


  Unified command, active coordination. Operators of nuclear installations shall coordinateand direct on-site nuclear accident emergency response actions in a unified manner, andgovernments at all levels shall coordinate and direct nuclear accident emergency responseactions within their respective jurisdictions in a unified manner. Under the unifiedorganization and direction of the government, nuclear emergency organizations, relevantdepartments, relevant enterprises, professional teams, social organizations and militaryrescue units shall work in coordination with one another in a joint effort to complete nuclearaccident emergency response actions.


  Public safeguard and environmental protection. Public safeguard constitutes thefundamental objective of nuclear emergency preparedness, and it is incumbent upon us totake the attitude and actions that everything is for the people in coping with nuclear accidents.Environmental protection should be viewed as the fundamental requirement of nuclearemergency preparedness in such a way that every effort is made to minimize the release ofradioactive substances and do our best to control, mitigate and eliminate damages to theenvironment.


  The basic principles underlying nuclear emergency preparedness in China are: unifiedleadership, different levels of responsibility, tiered arrangements, coordination between thelocality and the military, quick response, and scientific handling.


  Unified leadership, different levels of responsibility. Under the unified leadership of the centralgovernment, China has established a nuclear emergency management system featuringassignment of responsibility to different levels. The operator of the relevant nuclearinstallation is the major body of accountability for on-site emergency work. The people’sgovernment at the provincial level is the major body of accountability for off-site emergencyactivities in its jurisdiction.


  Tiered arrangements, coordination between the locality and the military. Nuclear emergencyinvolves the central and the local, the military and the government, on-site and off-site,specialized techniques and social administration. Therefore, it is necessary to uphold theprinciples of uniform deployment and centralized planning, mutual support, mutualcoordination, and comprehensive rescue at all times.


  Quick response, scientific handling. When a nuclear accident occurs, all levels of nuclearemergency organizations shall be mobilized at the earliest possible time to rapidly control andmitigate the accident to minimize any impact on the public and the environment. Everyeffort shall be made to take into account the characteristics and rules applicable to nuclearaccidents as the basis for organizing studies and evaluations to enable scientific decision-making, and enforce a full range of response actions in an effective manner, includingradiation monitoring, worksite rescue, decontamination and cleansing, radiation protectionand medical treatment, and so forth.



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